Gunmaker Rollin White patented his bored-through cylinder design on the 3rd of April 1855 and later sold it to Smith & Wesson. All other gun manufacturers in the US had to either pay royalties to Smith & Wesson or come up with various ideas to try and circumvent the patent. During the mid 1850’s. gunmakers Willard Ellis and John White patented a FRONT LOADING system that became known as the Cup Fire. The cup fire system was similar technically to rimfire, but with the priming compound in the base of the hollow cup at the end of the cartridge case. This allowed it to be loaded from the front of the cylinder, and fired by a hammer striking through a smaller hole in the rear of the cylinder.