It is accepted that this was the earliest of the 23mm case length 9mm cartridges and the D.W.M. case register refers to the cartridge simply as “Pistole Kal. 9mm No. 6 Bergmann,” It is possible that development started earlier, and the Bergmann MARS M1903 was in all probability the one used during the British Pistol Trials of 1904. The Bergmann Mars No.6 round has a slightly larger base diameter than the later 9mm Bergmann-Bayard cartridges. (Erlmeier, Brandt Ref. 112).