Much controversy has surrounded the 9mm Campo Giro over the years. The Campo-Giro was a semi-automatic pistol, named after its designer, Colonel Don Venancio López de Ceballos y Aguirre, Count of Campo-Giro. Studies have shown however that, although the pistol design was called the Campo-Giro, the cartridge is actually the 9mm Largo, the Spanish version of the 9mm Bergmann-Bayard. It is shown here for continuity, but all discussion and research will be under the 9mm Bergmann-Bayard. (Erlmeier, Brandt Ref. 117).