Introduced a few years after the 9mm Perrin, the 9mm Galand was developed by French gunsmith Charles-François Galand of Liège, Belgium together with Alfred Summerville of the British firm of BRAENDLIN, SOMMERVILLE & Co, BIRMINGHAM and first patented on the 18th of September 1868. The Galand cartridge is not interchangeable with the 9mm Perrin. The Galand is a larger cartridge than the Perrin and used various “modern” forms of primer whereas the Perrin cartridge was internally primed. The bullet and base diameter are also larger than the Perrin. There was an excellent article written by fellow collector Aaron Newcomer on the history and development of the Galand and Perrin revolvers. Erlmeier, Brandt gives a reference number 121, but that is a generic description of the early French thick-rimmed cartridges.