At the end of WW2 and into the Cold War period, the USSR was looking to replace the TT-33 7.62 Tokarev with a more powerful handgun for its own military as well as their satellite states in Eastern Europe. The cartridge was designed by Boris V. Semin in 1946 and was based on the 9mm Ultra designed by Gustav Genshow & Company in 1936 that was a more powerful alternative to the 7.65mm Browning round that was chambered in the Walther PP pistol. The Russians designed this cartridge to have a bullet diameter of .365 inch instead of .355 inch of the 9mm Luger to that captured ammunition could not be used by a foreign power. The Makarov PM pistol was designed by Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov around 1948. (Erlmeier, Brandt Ref. 128).

Military Manufacture


The first four specimens are East German dummy rounds, the next 2 specimens are French loads. The Bakelite dummy loading is Hungarian.


aym was by Povazske Strojarne, Povazska Bystrica Facility, Czechoslovakia. bxn was Sellier & Bellot, Zbrojovka Vlasim, Czechoslovakia. The code used to denote cartridges made for the Czech and Communist Block military. The specimen with the reverse ogive bullet was a experimental high velocity load. The last two specimens with nickel-washed steel cases are Pressure Test loads.


The 04 code was by Mechanische Werkstatten, Konigswartha, East Germany and was produced between 1957 – 1988. The 10 code was on military cartridges made between 1957 to the 1970’s by Kazanlak State Arsenal, Sofia, Bulgaria. Production was resumed during the late 1990’s. The specimens with code 21 were by Bakony Muvek, Veszprem, Hungary except for the dummy loading with the date inverted in relation to the code, which was by Mesko, Skarzysko – Kamienna, Poland. Code 188 was by Novosibirsk Low Voltage Equipment Works, Bullet is an AP SP-7.


Code 38 was by Yuryuzan (Tcheliabinsk) factory that manufactured most of the Soviet small arms cartridges. The specimen with the white tip is a reference loading. Code 71 was by Zhang Jiang Electric Engineering, Sichung, Quong Qing, China. The specimen with green tip is a tracer loading. Code 270 was by State Arsenal, Lugansk, located in the Eastern Ukraine. Code 539 is Tula Cartridge Works

Commercial Manufacture


B-WEST was originally started by Bob Jensen as an import business for ammunition and firearm related goods from China and Russia. This one was loaded by Tula Cartridge Works. FAME was by Fábrica de Armas y Municiones del Ejército, Lima, Peru. The 2 intertwined circles were by Government Factory #791, Chunking, China and was used between 1950 and 1982. The LC headstamp was by MFS Hungary for the US.


The RED ARMY brand is by RAS (Red Army Standard) International, Inc. Delray Beach, FL, USA with the small LU meaning that the cartridges were made at the Lugansk Factory in the Eastern Ukraine. The specimen with Code 601 is by State Factory, Tashkent, Uzbekistan


The aluminium case with SEL was by Sporting Equipment, Lewiston (CCI). SKN was by Fabryka Amunicji Skarzysko, Poland and was the pre- Mesko headstamp.